Download PDF by Ulrich Bundi (auth.), Ulrich Bundi (eds.): Alpine Waters

By Ulrich Bundi (auth.), Ulrich Bundi (eds.)

ISBN-10: 354088274X

ISBN-13: 9783540882749

ISBN-10: 3540882758

ISBN-13: 9783540882756

Most of the world’s mountains are wealthy in water and, as such, play a pivotal position within the worldwide water cycle. they supply water for varied human makes use of and ecosystems. starting to be water calls for in addition to weather swap will bring about ever-increasing strain on mountain waters. Overcoming water-use conflicts and holding the ecological functioning of mountain waters offers a hugely tough job and is necessary for sustainable development.
This ebook broadly portrays the hugely varied attributes of mountain waters and demonstrates their paramount value for ecological and societal improvement. The large summaries at the clinical fundamentals of mountain waters are supplemented with concerns at the assorted water makes use of, wishes for administration activities, and demanding situations concerning sustainable water administration. This evaluation matters not just the mountain components themselves but additionally downriver reaches and their surrounding lowlands, and, hence, the connection among mountain and lowland water issues.

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13 Average seasonal course (1982–2000) of the main water balance elements in the alpine Dischma catchment simulated with PREVAH and the EMA snowmelt module. P: areal precipitation, R: runoff, ET: evapotranspiration and SN_M: snowmelt [82] General Characteristics of Alpine Waters 37 Fig. 14 Alpine regimes in Switzerland [83]. 5 occur due to the storage of precipitation in the form of snow and ice. The seasonality of precipitation exerts only a minor influence on seasonal flow characteristics, since the greater volume of precipitation north of the Alps in the summer half-year is offset by higher evaporation during the summer.

Using various decision criteria as a basis, they obtained five event types: Flash floods, short-rain floods, long-rain floods, rain-on-snow-events and snow- (glacier-) melt events, which are shown in Fig. 17 for selected catchments in Switzerland. On the north-facing slopes of the Alps there is one clearly identifiable zone which is dominated by flash floods and short-rain floods. This zone is largely identical with the aforementioned zone of increased flood disposition. In the alpine zone itself, which, due to the use of 40 B.

5 Formation of a lee cyclone [10] 24 B. Wehren et al. Either over the eastern Alps towards the interior of Eastern Europe, or along the North coast of the Mediterranean towards the Balkans [13]. g. [5, 14–20]). In theory, since the absolute water vapor content of air reduces as the temperature sinks or the altitude rises, the volume of precipitation should decline. Yet the opposite is the case, particularly in mountainous regions in the temperate latitudes: here the annual volumes of precipitation generally tend to rise with the altitude.

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Alpine Waters by Ulrich Bundi (auth.), Ulrich Bundi (eds.)

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