By Ranko Matasović
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Additional info for A Short Grammar of Kabardian
G. -to go). In works on Kabardian there is quite a lot of confusion regarding this problem (the conditions under which the prefix (a)w- appears are not entirely transparent), but it is clear that some verbs are always either transitive or intransitive, i. e. that the difference is lexical with some verbs (which we wouldn't expect if the intransitive construction was actually the antipassive). The antipassive is usually characteristic for most transitive verbs, similarly as most transitive verbs can form the passive in the nominative-accusative languages.
E. if the preceding example should be rendered as "it is possible to the sick man to eat the apple". 54 This correlation between (at least some) potentials and intransitives seems to be an areal feature in the Caucasus. Cp. Hewitt 2004: 181ff. for similar examples from Mingrelian, Ingush, Khinalug, and Abkhaz. ) 1957: 93. 50 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian PERSONAL AND DIRECTIONAL PREFIXES The use of directional prefixes is compulsory with many verbs for certain persons and tenses; the use of these prefixes is quite idiomatic, and it seems that each verb has its own pattern56, cf.
They can be freely combined with the interrogative suffixes: śha ā wə-zə-tay-s-ā məva-r q'a-bġana-ra? -sit-pret. -leave-inter. " MOODS Kabardian verbal moods are: indicative, imperative, admirative, optative, conditional and permissive. A) Indicative The indicative is the unmarked verbal mood. It has the suffixes -ś (for affirmative) and -q'əm (for negation). " here come la! " (lan "to paint") ša! " (šan "to lead") txə! " The imperative is also used in the 2nd person plural: fyə Satanyay gwāśa f-ya-wəpś'!
A Short Grammar of Kabardian by Ranko Matasović