By Margaret Akinyi Abira
This research, performed in Kenya, supplies the 1st perception into the functionality of a developed therapy wetland receiving pulp and paper mill wastewater within the tropics.
The wetland successfully got rid of natural subject, suspended solids, phenols and food. BOD and phenols relief charges are stated for the 1st time. layout parameters and instructions for the set-up and upkeep of a full-scale wetland are suggested. The research concludes that integrating a full-scale wetland, as a tertiary degree with the prevailing remedy ponds could considerably enhance the standard of water in River Nzoia downstream of the effluent discharge.
This is a invaluable source e-book for scientists, managers and scholars within the box of wetland ecology, water and environmental management.
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Additional info for A Pilot Constructed Treatment Wetland for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater: Performance, Processes and Implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya UNESCO-IHE PhD
Note: Sampling points 1-7 respectively refer to: raw wastewater = 1, overflows from the clarifier = 2, pond 1 (aerated) = 3, pond 2 (aerated) = 4, ponds 3 and 4 (stabilisation) = 5 and 6, and the end of the effluent channel = 7. Data collected from September to December 2002 (n = 6). Additional data collected between July 2003 and June 2005 (n=4) were incorporated. 0 1 2 3 4 5 Sampling point 6 7 Fig. 8 Variation in phenols in the effluent treatment system at different sampling points (n=10). Note: Sampling points 1-7 respectively refer to: raw wastewater = 1, overflows from the clarifier = 2, pond 1 (aerated) = 3, pond 2 (aerated) = 4, ponds 3 and 4 (stabilisation) = 5 and 6, and the end of the effluent channel = 7.
Subsurface flow wetlands, however, present a time delay (td) before tracer outflow is observed and the flow hydrodynamics may be described by a combination of plug flow and CSTRs. , 1999). They developed a measure for the hydraulic efficiency (λ) that reflects tracer flow characteristics of constructed wetlands and ponds. In its simplest form, λ is the ratio of the time of the peak outflow concentration (tp) to the nominal detention time (tn). Research scope and objectives The pilot study constructed wetland was intended to act as a polishing unit for the wastewater from the PANPAPER Mills stabilisation ponds and to offer continuous buffer, especially during 42 Chapter 3 low flow in the River Nzoia.
The solution was mixed with influent in the inlet chamber and was carried into the system by the stream flow. The wetland outflow was sampled at three-hour intervals for eight days. However due to security reasons night-time sampling was less frequent with intervals of 9 – 12 hours from day 5 to day 8. The samples were preserved with nitric acid. 8 nm (APHA, 1995). 8 °C with daily temperatures sometimes reaching 30 47 Design, hydrology and flow °C in the duration of the experiment. 9 m/s). 05) between the different phases of batch and continuous flow.
A Pilot Constructed Treatment Wetland for Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater: Performance, Processes and Implications for the Nzoia River, Kenya UNESCO-IHE PhD by Margaret Akinyi Abira