By Pet, Willem J. A.
Arawak (Lokono Dian), an Amerindian language within the Arawakan language kinfolk, is comparatively undescribed. the aim of this research is to provide a normal, bottom-up cartoon of Arawak. It starts off with reviews at the phonology, then discusses morphology and syntax, and ends with reviews approximately discourse.
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Arawak (Lokono Dian), an Amerindian language within the Arawakan language kinfolk, is comparatively undescribed. the aim of this learn is to provide a common, bottom-up cartoon of Arawak. It begins with reviews at the phonology, then discusses morphology and syntax, and ends with reviews approximately discourse.
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Additional info for A grammar sketch and lexicon of Arawak (Lokono Dian)
5 Tense/Aspect (Class +5) The fifth position after the stem consists of five tense/aspect suffixes. In addition, the absence of all of these suffixes has its own meaning, normally past. However, the past tense interpretation, when none of the five tense/aspect suffixes is present, does not occur when -li ‘necessitative’ or -ma ‘habilitative’ are present. CONT’ ‘INCH’ ‘PAST’ present continuative perfect future past continuative inchoative simple past The suffixes in this class are analyzed in more detail in Chapter 5 and consequently are dealt with only briefly here.
OBJ’, -fa ‘FUT’, and -(n)bia ‘INCH’. In all other circumstances, the basic-stem form also appears with an a. For example, the morphological difference between simakyn ‘to call (someone)’ and simakan ‘to yell or cry out’ is lost when the present continuative suffix -bo is added. Thus one finds: (51) a. Da-simaka-bo no. ’ b. Da-simaka-bo. ’ Here the difference between “yell” and “call” must be obtained from the context—in this case, the presence of an object (which is obligatory for transitive verbs).
4 Verbs 35 The suffix -ka ‘perfect’ is used to indicate a completed action where the effects of that action extend into the present. For example, if one says (67) Da-sokosa-ka. ’ then the clothes have been washed and are now clean. Similarly, the question (68) By-ka-ka? ’ not only asks whether a bath has been taken, but also asks whether its effects are still present. Thus the question could not be answered in the affirmative if one has bathed but is now dirty again. The future suffix -fa (-ha in some dialects) generally indicates future certainty.
A grammar sketch and lexicon of Arawak (Lokono Dian) by Pet, Willem J. A.